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Injection Molding Reference Guide

8 Units and Conversions

Metric is the most common form of measurement used worldwide and is based on a system of tenths. For example, the Meter is the metric standard for length and one tenth of a meter is a decimeter. One hundredth of a meter is a centimeter, one thousandth of a meter is a millimeter and one thousand meters is a kilometer. The same convention applies to most metric standards: For example, the Gram, Decigram, Centigram, Milligram, and the Liter, Deciliter, Centiliter, and Milliliter.

The imperial system is an older system of measurement that does not use standard conventions. Imperial units include inches, feet, pounds, ounces and gallons. Imperial units are very common in the United States and North America, but less common globally. In the injection molding industry, the inch is the most commonly used imperial unit of measurement for length. Twelve inches equal a foot, three feet equal a yard, and one thousand, seven hundred sixty yards equals a mile.

Imperial units can also become somewhat confusing when deal-ing with weight and volume measurements. For example, sixteen ounces in weight equals one pound, while one hundred twenty-eight fluid ounces equals a gallon. Since most injection molding facilities operate globally, it is common for personnel to convert measure-ments from metric units to imperial units, and vice versa, on a regular basis.

8.1 Time

Figure 8a: Common Time Units

Abbr.

Unit

s

Second

min

Minute

hr

Hour

Figure 8b: Common Time Conversions

Equals

1 min

60 s

1 hr

60 min

8.2 Rotation

Figure 8c: Common Rotation Units and Terms

Abbr.

Unit / Term

CW

Clockwise

CCW

Counterclockwise

Rev

Revolution (may be notated as decimal or fraction)

°

Degree

rad

Radian

Figure 8d: Common Rotation Conversions

Equals

1 Rev

360°

½ Rev

180°

¼ Rev

90°

0.01745 rad

1 rad

57.2957°

8.3 Temperature

Figure 8e: Common Temperature Units & References

Standard

Abbr.

Unit

Water Freezes

Water Boils

Metric

°C

Degrees Celsius

0°C

100°C

Imperial

°F

Degrees Fahrenheit

32°F

212°F

Figure 8f: Common Temperature Conversions

Equation

°F to °C

(°F – 32) ÷ 1.8

°C to °F

(°C * 1.8) + 32

8.4 Length

Figure 8g: Common Length Units

Standard

Abbr.

Unit

Metric

mm

Millimeters

cm

Centimeters

m

Meters

Imperial

in

Inches

ft

Feet

Figure 8h: Common Length Conversions

Convert From:

To:

Multiply By:

mm

cm

10

cm

m

100

cm

mm

0.1

ft

in

12

in

ft

.0833

in

cm

2.54

in

mm

25.4

mm

in

.03937

cm

in

.3937

8.5 Speed

Figure 8i: Common Speed Units

Standard

Abbr.

Unit

Metric

mm/s

Millimeters per second

cm/s

Centimeters per second

Imperial

in/s

Inches per second

ft/s

Feet per second

Figure 8j: Common Speed Conversions

Convert From:

To:

Multiply By:

mm/s

in/s

.03937

cm/s

in/s

.3937

in/s

mm/s

25.4

in/s

cm/s

2.54

8.6 Area

Figure 8k: Common Area Units

Standard

Abbr.

Unit

Metric

mm²

Square Millimeters

cm²

Square Centimeters

Square Meters

Imperial

in²

Square Inches

ft²

Square feet

Figure 8l: Common Area Conversions

Convert From:

To:

Multiply By:

mm²

cm²

.01

cm²

mm²

100

mm²

in²

0.00155

in²

mm²

645.146

8.7 Volume

Figure 8m: Common Volume Units

Standard

Abbr.

Unit

Metric

mm³

Cubic Millimeters

cm³

Cubic Centimeters

Cubic Meters

l

Liters

ml

Milliliters

Imperial

in³

Cubic Inches

ft³

Cubic Feet

fl oz

Fluid Ounces

gal

Gallons

Figure 8n: Common Volume Conversions

Convert From:

To:

Multiply By:

mm³

cm³

0.001

cm³

mm³

1000

cm³

in³

0.061

in³

cm³

16.387

l

gal

0.264

gal

l

3.785

ml

fl oz

0.0338

fl oz

ml

29.57

8.8 Volumetric Flow Rate

Figure 8o: Common Flow Rate Units

Standard

Abbr.

Unit

Metric

mm³/s

Cubic Millimeters per Second

cm³/s

Cubic Centimeters per Second

lpm

Liters per Minute

Imperial

in³/s

Cubic Inches per Second

gpm

Gallons per Minute

Figure 8p: Common Volumetric Flow Rate Conversions

Convert From:

To:

Multiply By:

mm³/s

cm³/s

0.001

cm³/s

mm³/s

1000

cm³/s

in³/s

0.061

in³/s

cm³/s

16.387

lpm

gpm

0.264

gpm

lpm

3.785

8.9 Mass

Figure 8q: Common Mass Units

Standard

Abbr.

Unit

Metric

mg

Milligrams

g

Grams

kg

Kilograms

Imperial

oz

Ounce

lb

Pound

Figure 8r: Common Mass and Force Conversions

Convert From:

To:

Multiply By:

g

mg

1000

g

kg

0.001

mg

g

0.001

kg

g

1000

lb

oz

16

oz

lb

0.0625

g

oz

0.03527

oz

g

28.35

kg

lb

2.2046

lb

kg

0.4536

8.10 Mass Flow Rate

Figure 8s: Common Mass Flow Rate Units

Standard

Abbr.

Unit

Metric

g/hr

Grams per Hour

kg/hr

Kilograms per Hour

Imperial

oz/hr

Ounces per Hour

lb/hr

Pounds per Hour

Figure 8t: Common Mass Flow Rate Conversions

Convert From:

To:

Multiply By:

g/hr

kg/hr

0.001

kg/hr

g/hr

1000

lb/hr

oz/hr

16

oz/hr

lb/hr

0.0625

g/hr

oz/hr

0.03527

oz/hr

g/hr

28.35

kg/hr

lb/hr

2.2046

lb/hr

kg/hr

0.4536

8.11 Pressure

Figure 8u: Common Pressure Units

Standard

Abbr.

Unit

Metric

bar

Bar

MPa

Megapascal

Imperial

psi

Pounds per Square Inch

Figure 8v: Common Pressure Conversions

Convert From:

To:

Multiply By:

bar

MPa

0.1

MPa

bar

10

bar

psi

14.504

psi

bar

0.06895

MPa

psi

145.04

psi

MPa

0.006895

8.12 Tonnage

Figure 8w: Common Tonnage Conversions

Convert From:

To:

Multiply By:

US ton

metric ton

1.1023

metric ton

US ton

0.9097

US ton

lb

2000

lb

US ton

0.0005

metric ton

kg

1000

kg

metric ton

0.0010

8.13 Common Conversion Tables

Figure 8x: Celsius to Fahrenheit (°C to °F)

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Figure 8y: Millimeters to Inches (mm to in)

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Figure 8z: bar to psi

 

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