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Injection Molding Reference Guide

2 Plastic Materials Overview

2.1 General Information About Common Materials

2.1.1 ABS (Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene)

Trade Names

ABEL, ASTALAC, AVP, CEVIAN, CYCOLAC, ESPREE, EXCELLOY, KRALASTIC, LUSTRAN,

Nyloy, Toyolac, TRILAC, Veroplas

General Characteristics

ABS is an amorphous terpolymer that consists of Acrylonitrile, Butadiene, and Styrene. This polymer has good flame retardant properties, a glossy finish, and high impact resistance depending on the blend. ABS has limited weathering resistance and certain grades have a relatively high cost.

Applications

General purpose, automotive, housings, electri- cal, and thin walled parts

Processing Temp. Range

425-500 °F (220-260 °C)

Mold Temp. Range

120-190 °F (50-90 °C)

2.1.2 Acetal or POM (Polyoxymethylene)

Trade Names

Celcon, Delrin, Hostaform, Kepital, Lucel, Lucet, RTP, Tarnoform, Tenac, Ultraform

General Characteristics

A highly crystalline polymer with good creep, fatigue, solvent, and water resistance. POM is a high strength and stiff polymer with good electrical properties.

Applications

Gears, bearings, automotive, and industrial

Processing Temp. Range

375-420 °F (190-215 °C)

Mold Temp. Range

120-200 °F (50-95 °C)

2.1.3 HDPE (High Density Polyethylene)

Trade Names

Alathon, Bapolene, Braskem, Formolene, Ineos, SCLAIR

General Characteristics

HDPE is a highly crystalline opaque polymer with low moisture absorption as well as high tensile strength, chemical resistance and impact resistance. HDPE can also be machined and processed easily.

Applications

Automotive, coatings, containers, film, general purpose, industrial, packaging, tanks, and wire jacking

Processing Temp. Range

380-550 °F (195-290 °C)

Mold Temp. Range

80-100 °F (25-40 °C)

2.1.4 HIPS (High Impact Polystyrene)

Trade Names

ASTALAC, Avantra, CERTENE, Edistir, ESPREE, POLYREX, STYRON

General Characteristics

HIPS is an amorphous copolymer of Polysty- rene and Polybutadiene rubber which has better impact resistance and dimensional stability than GPPS but lacks the superb clarity. HIPS has good machinability and dimensional stability with a low cost. As with GPPS, HIPS has poor solvent and electrical resistance.

Applications

Prototypes, housings, covers, toys, and appli- ances

Processing Temp. Range

410-500 °F (210-260 °C)

Mold Temp. Range

70-140 °F (20-60 °C)

2.1.5 Ionomer

Trade Names

Bexloy, Surlyn

General Characteristics

Ionomers are comprised of neutral and ionized polymer segments. Ionomers typically have ethylene based performance characteristics but with the added benefits of low temperature impact, chemical, and abrasion resistance.

Some grades are designed to have high gloss and barrier properties.

Applications

Packaging, coatings, industrial, film, liners, sheet, and automotive exteriors

Processing Temp. Range

420-530 °F (215-275 °C)

Mold Temp. Range

40-120 °F (5-50 °C)

2.1.6 LDPE (Low Density Polyethylene)

Trade Names

Braskem, Kemcor, Lutene, Marlex, Riblene

General Characteristics

LDPE is a low cost, semi-crystalline polymer with good moisture resistance and flexibility. LDPE is generally used in high volume extru- sion processes.

Applications

Agricultural, bags, coatings, containers, film, general purpose, packaging, and electrical insulation

Processing Temp. Range

325-550 °F (165-290 °C)

Mold Temp. Range

70-90 °F (20-30 °C)

2.1.7 LLDPE (Linear Low Density Polyethylene)

Trade Names

Braskem, CERTENE, DOW, Flexirene, NEO-ZEX, Petrothene, ULTZEX

General Characteristics

LLDPE is a semi-crystalline polymer with good moisture and chemical resistance. LLDPE typically has a rather high melt flow rate and exhibits good low temperature toughness and gloss.

Applications

Caps, containers, medical, toys

Processing Temp. Range

325-550 °F (165-290 °C)

Mold Temp. Range

70-90 °F (20-30 °C)

2.1.8 PA-11 (Nylon-11)

Trade Names

ASHLENE, Rilsan

General Characteristics

PA-11 is a semi-crystalline polyamide with outstanding thermal, chemical, and mechanical properties. PA-11 is a versatile polymer used in demanding situations due to its good impact properties and a high working temperature.

Applications

Hoses, electrical/electronics, automotive, sports, and medical

Processing Temp. Range

440-550 °F (225-285 °C)

Mold Temp. Range

100-150 °F (40-65 °C)

2.1.9 PA-12 (Nylon-12)

Trade Names

ASHLENE, Ecomass, Fostalon, Grilamid, PLUS- TEK, Rilsan, Vestamid

General Characteristics

PA-12 is a semi-crystalline polyamide with great dimensional stability, impact strength, and chemical resistance. PA-12 is an excellent material for many applications because of its dimensional stability and properties at low temperatures.

Applications

Appliance components, automotive, bushings, cell phones, gears, general purpose, household goods, housings, medical, outdoor, engineering parts, sporting goods, tools, and wheels

Processing Temp. Range

450-570 °F (230-300 °C)

Mold Temp. Range

100-180 °F (40-80 °C)

2.1.10 PA-4/6 (Nylon-4/6)

Trade Names

Stanyl

General Characteristics

PA-4/6 is a semi-crystalline polyamide with outstanding structural performance properties and dimensional stability at elevated tempera- tures. PA-4/6 has excellent resistance to friction and wear with good flow properties. Many grades have some sort of fiber reinforcement to enhance the mechanical properties of the material.

Applications

Gears, automotive, electronics, and industrial

Processing Temp. Range

580-600 °F (305-315 °C)

Mold Temp. Range

180-300 °F (80-150°C)

2.1.11 PA-6 (Nylon-6)

Trade Names

ALTECH, CAPRON, Durethan, Grilon, HiFill, Maxamid, Nypel, Radilon, Ultramid

General Characteristics

PA-6 is a semi-crystalline polyamide with great toughness and elasticity which makes it suitable for textile and oriented fibers. PA-6 also has high tensile strength and chemical resistance.

Applications

Textiles, fibers, zip fasteners, gears, gun frames, instrument strings, and surgical sutures

Processing Temp. Range

460-520 °F (240-270 °C)

Mold Temp. Range

120-200 °F (50-95 °C)

2.1.12 PA-6/10 (Nylon-6/10)

Trade Names

ALAMID, Nylene

General Characteristics

PA-6/10 is a semi-crystalline polyamide with a lower brittleness temperature, strength, and water absorption than other PA-6’s. PA-6/10 has good resistance to most solvents and diluted mineral acids. PA-6/10 tends to have large amount of shrinkage.

Applications

Electrical, filaments, and precision parts

Processing Temp. Range

480-550 °F (250-290 °C)

Mold Temp. Range

120-220 °F (50-105 °C)

2.1.13 PA-6/12 (Nylon-6/12)

Trade Names

ASHLENE, Nycal, Radici, Vestamid, Zytel

General Characteristics

PA-6/12 is a semi-crystalline polyamide with low water absorption compared to other nylons. PA-6/12 has more consistent properties than PA-6 when exposed to humidity and has good heat resistance and dimensional stability.

Applications

Electrical components, gears, general purpose, knife handles, gun frames

Processing Temp. Range

450-550 °F (230-290 °C)

Mold Temp. Range

100-200 °F (40-95 °C)

2.1.14 PA-6/6 (Nylon-6/6)

Trade Names

Celstran, Clariant Nylon 6/6, Elastoblend, HiFill, Nylene, Nymax, Polifil, Vydyne

General Characteristics

PA-6/6 is a semi-crystalline polyamide with good toughness and abrasion resistance. Typi- cally used for commercial applications that will encounter extended use and abrasion.

Applications

Commercial grade fabrics, airbags, tires, textiles, carpets

Processing Temp. Range

500-580 °F (260-305 °C)

Mold Temp. Range

100-200 °F (40-95 °C)

2.1.15 PAEK (Polyaryletherketone)

Trade Names

Avaspire

General Characteristics

PAEK is a high performance semi-crystalline engineering thermoplastic that has extremely high temperature stability, mechanical strength, and chemical resistance. PAEK has slightly bet- ter dimensional stability and fatigue resistance than PEEK.

Applications

Chemical processing, electronics, medical, automotive, seals, valves, gears, and bearings

Processing Temp. Range

700-800 °F (370-425 °C)

Mold Temp. Range

300-425 °F (150-220 °C)

2.1.16 PBT (Polybutylene Terephthalate)

Trade Names

ABEL, ALCOM, ALTECH, ASHLENE, CELANEX,

Crastin, Lutrel, PLANAC, POCAN, RAMSTER, Ultradur, VALOX, Vestodur

General Characteristics

PBT is a semi-crystalline polyester with good stiffness and toughness. PBT has similar properties to some nylons but with much less water absorption. PBT has a continuous service temperature of around 120°C and is often used as an electrical insulator.

Applications

Automotive, industrial, electronics, housings, medical

Processing Temp. Range

450-500 °F (230-260 °C)

Mold Temp. Range

100-200 °F (40-95 °C)

2.1.17 PC (Polycarbonate)

Trade Names

ALCOM, Apec, ASHLENE, CALIBRE, Carbotex,

Durolon, Enviroplas, Hylex, LEXAN, Lupoy, Makrolon, Panlite, RAMTOUGH, TRIREX

General Characteristics

PC is an amorphous polymer with great impact resistance and optical clarity along with good heat resistance, toughness, and dimensional stability. Many polycarbonate products have surface coatings since PC does not have good chemical or scratch resistance.

Applications

Exterior automotive components, engineering components, housings, lenses, structural parts, medical components, and bullet proof sheeting

Processing Temp. Range

500-620 °F (260-325 °C)

Mold Temp. Range

160-220 °F (70-105 °C)

2.1.18 PC/ABS (PC/ABS Alloy)

Trade Names

Abel PC/ABS, ASTALOY, Bayblend, CYCLOY, Duroloy, EMERGE, EXCELLOY, Hybrid, Lupoy, Multilon, Novalloy-S, TECHNIACE, TRILOY, Verolloy, WONDERLOY

General Characteristics

PC/ABS is an amorphous thermoplastic copolymer of Polycarbonate and Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene. PC/ABS offers the proper- ties of both PC and ABS including: the strength and heat resistance of PC and the flexibility of ABS. PC/ABS exhibits high toughness even at cold temperatures.

Applications

Automotive, electronics, medical, and aero- nautical

Processing Temp. Range

480-540 °F (250-280 °C)

Mold Temp. Range

120-200 °F (50-95 °C)

2.1.19 PC/PET (PC/PET Alloy)

Trade Names

Makroblend, XENOY

General Characteristics

PC/PET is an amorphous thermoplastic blend that combines the properties of both PC and PET. It can be opaque or transparent and has high rigidity, dimensional stability, and impact resistance.

Applications

Sporting goods, electrical/electronic, automo- tive, industrial/mechanical, and household

Processing Temp. Range

490-550 °F (255-290 °C)

Mold Temp. Range

130-190 °F (55-90 °C)

2.1.20 PEEK (Polyetheretherketone)

Trade Names

Arlon, Ketaspire, MOTIS, PEEK-OPTIMA, VESTAKEEP, VICTREX

General Characteristics

PEEK is a high performance semi-crystalline engineering thermoplastic that has extremely high temperature stability and mechanical strength. PEEK has great dimensional stability, fatigue resistance, and chemical resistance with low smoke and toxic gas emission when exposed to flame.

Applications

Piston parts, gears, aerospace, automotive, chemical processing, and insulation

Processing Temp. Range

660-750 °F (350-400 °C)

Mold Temp. Range

325-425 °F (165-220 °C)

2.1.21 PEI (Polyetherimide)

Trade Names

ULTEM

General Characteristics

PEI is an amorphous polymer with excellent dimensional stability, chemical resistance, mechanical strength, and high temperature performance. PEI is electrically conductive which makes it suitable for some electronics applications.

Applications

Medical devices, microwave cookware, insula- tors, automotive, electrical/electronics, and metal replacement

Processing Temp. Range

640-800 °F (340-425 °C)

Mold Temp. Range

175-350 °F (80-175 °C)

2.1.22 PES (Polyethersulfone)

Trade Names

HiFill PES, Ratron, SUMIKAEXCEL, TRIBOCOMP,

Ultrason

General Characteristics

PES is an amorphous transparent polymer with good stiffness and heat resistance. PES is suitable for high continuous use temperatures over extended periods of time. PES has high rigidity and dimensional stability over a broad temperature range. PES is susceptible to UV degradation and weathering.

Applications

Medical, automotive, industrial, pistons, filters/ membranes, and electrical/electronics

Processing Temp. Range

640-730 °F (340-385 °C)

Mold Temp. Range

250-360 °F (120-180 °C)

2.1.23 PP (Polypropylene)

Trade Names

Braskem, CERTENE, COPYLENE, Exelene, FER- REX, Formolene, GAPEX, Hostacom, INEOS, Maxxam, Polifil, POLYFLAM, Pro-fax, RAMOFIN, TIPPLEN, YUPLENE

General Characteristics

PP is a versatile semi-crystalline polymer with high impact resistance and melt flow rates. PP is a resilient polymer that acts as a living hinge when cyclically loaded or fatigued. PP is dif- ficult to bond with adhesives and has poor low temperature impact strength.

Applications

Automotive, films, containers, industrial ap- plications, general purpose, and living hinge applications

Processing Temp. Range

390-510 °F (200-265 °C)

Mold Temp. Range

70-140 °F (20-60 °C)

2.1.24 PPO (Polyphenylene Oxide)

Trade Names

Fiberfil, Noryl

General Characteristics

PPO is an amorphous engineering plastic with high temperature resistance, dimensional stabil- ity, and electrical resistance along with low thermal expansion. PPO is sensitive to organic solvents and is susceptible to environmental stress cracking.

Applications

Pumps, valves, fittings, electrical components, manifolds, covers, housings, and coatings

Processing Temp. Range

490-590 °F (255-310 °C)

Mold Temp. Range

140-200 °F (60-95 °C)

2.1.25 PS (Polystyrene)

Trade Names

Amoco, Bapolan, Eporex, Styron, Valtra

General Characteristics

PS is an inexpensive amorphous polymer with great optical clarity. Unfilled polystyrene is typically called GPPS (general purpose poly- styrene) and is rigid but brittle. PS can be used in virtually all processes, making it extremely versatile in the marketplace. PS has poor thermal stability and solvent resistance.

Applications

Toys, packaging, sheet, housings, appliances, household goods, and expanded beads

Processing Temp. Range

350-525 °F (175-275 °C)

Mold Temp. Range

50-150 °F (10-65 °C)

2.1.26 PVC (Polyvinylchloride)

Trade Names

APEX, Geon, Georgia Gulf, Manner, Reinier, Roscom, Sylvin, Unichem

General Characteristics

PVC is an amorphous thermoplastic that is difficult to process as a homopolymer. Many grades of PVC exist with different plasticizer concentrations that effect the processing of the material. Rigid PVC has strong chemical resis- tance and moderate temperature resistance. PVC has poor UV resistance.

Applications

Wire coating, tubing, automotive, electronics, profiles, general purpose, and medical

Processing Temp. Range

330-400 °F (165-205 °C)

Mold Temp. Range

70-125 °F (20-50 °C)

2.1.27 SAN (Styrene Acrylonitrile)

Trade Names

FORMPOLY, KIBISAN, Kumho, LG SAN, Lustran,

Porene, SANREX, Veroplas

General Characteristics

SAN is an amorphous copolymer of styrene and acrylonitrile. SAN has higher strength, rigidity, and chemical resistance than polystyrene but lacks the same optical clarity. SAN has poor impact strength and low thermal capabilities.

Applications

Electrical, appliances, cosmetics, medical, containers, and automotive

Processing Temp. Range

420-500 °F (215-260 °C)

Mold Temp. Range

110-180 °F (45-80 °C)

2.1.28 TPC-ET (Thermoplastic Copolyester Elastomers)

Trade Names

Arnitel, Elitel, Hytrel, Keyflex, Riteflex

General Characteristics

TPC-ET polymers are amorphous thermo- plastic copolymers that exhibit the flexibility of rubbers and the strength and processability of thermoplastics. TPC-ET blends have excellent flex fatigue resistance and a broad use tem- perature. They have good toughness and resist hydrocarbons.

Applications

Adhesives, cast film, coatings, filaments, hose, sheet, and tubing

Processing Temp. Range

490-550 °F (255-290 °C)

Mold Temp. Range

130-190 °F (55-90 °C)

2.1.29 TPE (Thermoplastic Elastomer)

Trade Names

Ecdel, Estamid, Estane, Hytrel, Kraton, Ontex

General Characteristics

A TPE is an amorphous copolymer of ther- moplastic and elastomeric monomers and properties. TPEs can come in many classes including block-copolymers, polyolefin blends, and thermoplastic polyurethanes to name a few. Generally, these polymers have high heat resistance and ozone resistance.

Applications

Gaskets, automotive, sporting goods, tubing, and medical

Processing Temp. Range

350-450 °F (175-230 °C)

Mold Temp. Range

50-150 °F (10-65 °C)

2.1.30 TPO (Thermoplastic Polyolefin)

Trade Names

Exxtral, Lupol

General Characteristics

A TPO is a polymer/filler blend consisting of some fraction of polyolefin(s) and reinforce- ments. They have good dimensional stability and usually have a balance between stiffness and impact resistance in semi-structural and non-structural applications.

Applications

Appliances, automotive, electrical, consumer, packaging, and nonwovens

Processing Temp. Range

375-500 °F (190-260 °C)

Mold Temp. Range

50-150 °F (10-65 °C)

2.1.31 PPS (Polyphenylene Sulfide)

Trade Names

Fortron, Ryton, Sultron, TEDUR, Thermec, Xtel

General Characteristics

PPS is a semi-crystalline polymer which usually contains fillers or reinforcements. PPS has excellent ionizing radiation and chemical resistance. PPS is self-extinguishing and has low toxicity smoke when exposed to flame.

Applications

Chemical pumps, electrical components, coat- ings, piping, rods, and seals

Processing Temp. Range

580-640 °F (305-340 °C)

Mold Temp. Range

280-320 °F (140-160 °C)

2.1.32 PSU (Polysulfone)

Trade Names

Udel, Ultrason

General Characteristics

PSU is an amorphous polymer with good stiff- ness and heat resistance. PSU is transparent and maintains good mechanical properties over a wide temperature range. PSU has one of the highest service temperatures of melt-process- able thermoplastics which can be autoclaved and steam sterilized without any loss in physi- cal integrity.

Applications

Medical, electrical/electronics, filters, industrial, and aerospace

Processing Temp. Range

625-725 °F (330-385°C)

Mold Temp. Range

200-325 °F (95-165 °C)

2.1.33 PUR (Polyurethane)

Trade Names

Chronothane, Hydrothane, Polyblend

General Characteristics

PURs are a large family of polymers that may be thermoset or thermoplastic polymers with a broad array of properties. PUR has high abrasion resistance and is typically used as a coating, foam, or elastomer copolymer. These

polymers tend to be weak to UV rays and most organic solvents.

Applications

Adhesives, bushings, coatings, insulation, pip- ing, sealants, sheet, washers, and wheels

Processing Temp. Range

425-525 °F (220-275 °C)

Mold Temp. Range

50-150 °F (10-65 °C)

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